A calorie in physics is the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 °C. The calorie you see on a food package is actually a kilocalorie, or 1,000 calories, the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius. The original method used
Full-fat dairy may protect against obesity. A 2014 study concluded: “Participants in the highest tertile of whole-fat dairy intakes (milk, cheese, yogurt) had significantly lower odds for being obese."
Calories in food and calories as measured in physics are not the same. Nutritional calories exclude non-digestible components, excluding dietary fiber and artificial sweeteners; both of which could be burned in a bomb calorimeter to generate heat. Many of these human non-digestible components, like cellulose, are the primary energy source for other specie Human calories
Reducing dietary saturated fats does not reduce cardiovascular events and death. Improvements in cardiovascular outcomes are independent of direct cholesterol lowering. Dietary trials that provide abundant natural fats such as α-linoleic acid, polyphenols and Ω-3 fatty acids found in nuts, olive oil, oily fish, and vegetables exert a positive health effect, likely by reducing inflammation,
Total and LDL cholesterol are a poor marker of cardiovascular health. The cholesterol profile of elevated triglycerides and low HDL is a more predictive marker of cardiac risk and a reliable marker of insulin resistance. In fact, the QRISK calculator, used to estimate the 10-year risk of CVD does NOT use LDL cholesterol but uses
Refined carbohydrates are known to increase blood glucose levels, increase requirements for medications and result in weight gain. It is disturbing that dietary guidelines prioritize the consumption of starchy carbohydrates for type 2 diabetics, to nearly 55% of their daily macronutrient consumption.
A meta-analysis including almost 10,000 patients confirmed that high intake of Ω-6 oils (from vegetable oils/margarines) increases the risk of death and heart disease compared to saturated fat plus trans-fat. Human research data suggest that we should remove these vegetable oils from our food supply for optimal health.
Older data was confounded by the inclusion of Ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake. This misrepresented the health benefits of Ω--6. Other studies, such as the Anti-Coronary Club trial confirm that Ω--6 PUFA increases death and coronary heart disease compared to animal fat.
A calorie is a calorie only if it is incinerated in a bomb calorimeter, and the heat given off measured. Biologically derived calories from different foods have entirely different metabolic effects on the human body. Equal calorie portions of sugar, alcohol, meat or olive oil have widely differing effects on hormonal systems such as insulin,