ROS action is generally beneficial. However, under diabetic conditions, chronic hyperglycemia and consequent augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) deteriorate beta-cell function and escalate insulin resistance. This leads to an aggravation of the type 2 diabetes. Additionally, chronic hyperglycemia and ROS are also involved in the development of atherosclerosis which is often observed under diabetic
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) is a type of unstable molecule that contains oxygen and that easily reacts with other molecules in a cell. A buildup of reactive oxygen species in cells may cause damage to DNA, RNA, and proteins, and may cause cell death. Reactive oxygen species are free radicals, also called oxygen radicals. Traditionally,
Hyperinsulinemia (HI) serves as the common link between adipose tissue inflammation (ATI) and metabolic syndrome. The obesity-associated metabolic phenotype elevated pro-inflammatory cells (M1 macrophages and NK-cells) suppressed anti-inflammatory cells (M2 macrophages, eosinophils and regulatory T-cells). Partial reduction of circulating insulin level attenuated excess calorie-induced ATI and improved insulin sensitivity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018 Dec 5;477:15-28.
For Type 2 Diabetes to occur, both insulin resistance and comparative inadequate insulin secretion must co-exist. For example, overweight individuals may have insulin resistance, but diabetes only develops in those who cannot increase insulin secretion sufficiently to compensate for their insulin resistance. Unfortunately, this period of hyperinsulinemia prior to collapse of insulin production permits is
Watching TV before bed makes you hungry for dessert. Just one hour of exposure to artificial blue light at night, the kind of light produced by the our screens and light bulbs: • increases sugar consumption • raises blood sugar levels • reduces glucose tolerance (a warning sign of pre-diabetes.) After the exposure to one
The more insulin you have, the more fat you accumulate. Insulin activates the enzyme hexokinase, which phosphorylates glucose, trapping it within the cell, (and inhibits the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase, preventing phorphorylated glucose from being returned to glucose). Insulin also activates several of the enzymes that are directly involved in glycogen synthesis, including phosphofructokinase and glycogen
Your pain physician should be addressing obesity and insulin resistance if they hope to ever reverse your pain. Metabolic inflammation (metainflammation) of obesity and hyperinsulinemia is an under recognized cause of pain in the United States. Musculoskeletal pain has been estimated to affect 13.5%–47% of the general population, and 75 percent of those affected have
The prevalence of vending machines that stock soda in schools, particularly elementary schools, is concerning for the overall health and well-being of the country. Sodas are made largely with high fructose corn syrup. Fructose activates the dopaminergic reward system more than glucose, and high fructose corn syrup is spiked with extra fructose, far beyond what
Pain is the leading reason why people come to my practice, and it is the common link between untreated metabolic syndrome and untreated diabetes. I personally evaluate and treat several thousand patients per year for chronic pain, in an urban setting where access to high-intensity healthcare is readily available through several large academic centers as
Sugar addiction, especially glucose, leads to obesity because of how it is metabolized. Sucrose (table sugar) is a disaccharide made of 50% fructose and 50% glucose. Sucrose is metabolized primarily in the small intestine, releasing equal parts glucose and fructose. Glucose causes insulin release and is rapidly cleared from the blood stream by insulin-dependent channels.